Dockerfile WORKDIR: How to Get Started and Advanced Usage

By Eyal Katz September 6, 2023

Welcome to the world of Docker containers, where the power of isolation and portability meets streamlined application development. Whether you’re an experienced Docker user or just starting your containerization journey, effectively understanding and utilizing WORKDIR can significantly enhance your development workflow. 

61% of respondents to a recent Statista survey said they use Kubernetes, putting Docker and Kubernetes among the most in-demand skills by software firms globally. Knowing how to use Docker and all its features will help your business and tech teams maximize its benefits and collaborate better.    

In this article, we will look at the essential aspects of Dockerfile’s WORKDIR command, its use cases, and how to get started with it correctly. 

What is Docker?

Docker is an open-source platform that simplifies building, packaging, and deploying applications using containers. Containers are isolated environments that bundle an application with its dependencies, ensuring consistent operation across systems.

Imagine you’re a developer working on a web app with specific language versions and dependencies. Setting up the production environment to match the development can be time-consuming and error-prone. With Docker, you can package your app and dependencies into a self-contained unit, runnable on any system.

Docker Meme

For example, let’s say you’re developing a Node.js application that relies on specific versions of Node.js and additional dependencies. With Docker, you can define the precise versions and configurations required for your Node.js application, allowing your application to be executed in an identical and consistent environment each time.

What are the Benefits of Using Docker?

  • Provides an isolated and secure container environment, ensuring your applications run without conflicts between software stacks or dependencies.
  • Allows you to easily move and deploy containers across different systems, making application deployment more efficient and reducing compatibility issues.
  • With Docker’s containerization approach, you can run multiple containers simultaneously, enabling effective load distribution.
  • Guarantees that your application behaves consistently across different environments, eliminating the notorious ‘it works on my machine’ problem.
  • Facilitates seamless teamwork by providing a standardized environment that can be effortlessly shared among team members.

What is Dockerfile WORKDIR?

WORKDIR is a command that serves as a compass, directing subsequent instructions to operate within a specified working directory. Setting the working directory with WORKDIR establishes a solid foundation for running other commands like RUN, CMD, ENTRYPOINT, COPY, and ADD. It provides a structured environment for executing these instructions and organizes files, dependencies, and operations within the designated directory.

Example 1

FROM ubuntu:alpine


RUN pwd

The above simple example demonstrates the usage of this WORKDIR command. The WORKDIR /app command sets the working directory inside the container to /app. This means that any subsequent commands or file operations will be performed within this directory. Then the RUN pwd command is executed during the build process and prints the current working directory, which in this case it is /app.

Example 2




RUN pwd

In this scenario, we have a sequence of WORKDIR commands and a subsequent RUN pwd command. There is a relative path in the first WORKDIR command and therefore the output of the final RUN pwd will be /a/b/c directory.

Example 3



RUN pwd

In the above example, we are using a value in the environmental variable file to set the WORKDIR. Therefore the final RUN pwd command will output /path/$DIRNAME.

When specifying a directory that does not exist in the WORKDIR command, Docker automatically creates the directory for you within the container. If the WORKDIR command is not explicitly defined in a Dockerfile, the default working directory is set to the root directory (/).

What are the Benefits of Using Dockerfile WORKDIR?

  • Organizes and structures file and directory operations within the container.
  • Simplifies file and path management, improving the readability and maintainability of Dockerfiles.
  • Enables independent and isolated environments for various application components, ensuring cleanliness and separation between them.
  • Enables reproducibility and consistency across environments while facilitating collaboration among team members.

What’s the Difference Between Docker & Dockerfile?

Dockerfile is a text-based configuration file that defines the steps and instructions for building a Docker image. It serves as a blueprint for creating containerized applications. With Dockerfile, you can specify the base image, install dependencies, copy files, and execute commands needed to set up the environment inside a Docker container.

The key difference between Docker and Dockerfile is that Docker is the platform or technology used for containerization, whereas Dockerfile is a specific file format used within Docker to define the build instructions for creating Docker images.

Docker structure

7 Best Practices for Beginner and Advanced WORKDIR Usage

Optimizing the usage of Dockerfile WORKDIR is crucial for efficient and maintainable containerized application development. In this section, we’ll review seven best practices that will help both beginners and advanced users harness the full potential of WORKDIR.

  1. Choose meaningful directory names

Select descriptive names for your working directories to enhance the readability and maintainability of your Dockerfiles. For example, the below directory name indicates that myapp is a specific application within the /usr/src directory.

WORKDIR /usr/src/myapp 
  1. Use absolute paths for stability

When specifying the WORKDIR, consider using absolute paths (the complete name of a directory or file from the root) to ensure stability and avoid potential issues with relative path resolution.

WORKDIR /var/www/html

Here, /var/www/html is an absolute path pointing to the directory where the content is located.

  1. Create the directory structure early

Set up your directory structure early in the Dockerfile to establish a clear code and avoid confusion in subsequent instructions. Basically, the point of this is to create all necessary directories at the beginning.

FROM ubuntu:alpine

# Create the necessary directories at the beginning

RUN mkdir /app

RUN mkdir /app/src

RUN mkdir /app/config

# Set the working directory to /app


# Copy package.json and package-lock.json to the working directory

COPY package*.json ./

# Install dependencies

RUN npm install

# Copy the application source code to the src directory

COPY src ./src

# Copy the configuration files to the config directory

COPY config ./config

# Set the command to run the application

CMD ["node", "src/app.js"]
  1. Leverage variables for flexibility

Use environment variables to make your WORKDIR commands dynamic and flexible, allowing for easier customization and reuse.

# Define environment variables



# Set the working directory using variables

  1. Group related commands together

When possible, group related commands and instructions within the same working directory to improve the logical flow and organization of your Dockerfile.

# Copy custom configuration files

COPY nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

COPY default.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf

# Set the working directory to /usr/share/nginx/html

WORKDIR /usr/share/nginx/html

# Copy the web application files

COPY index.html .

COPY styles.css .

COPY scripts.js .
  1. Avoid changing working directories frequently

Minimize unnecessary changes to the working directory. Changing directories too frequently can make the Dockerfile harder to read and maintain. Instead, consider using multiple Dockerfiles or organizing your files in a way that minimizes the need for frequent directory changes.

  1. Avoid nesting multiple levels of working directories

Minimize the nesting of multiple levels of working directories within your Dockerfile. Excessive nesting can lead to longer and more complex file paths, which can make the Dockerfile harder to read and manage.



WORKDIR backend 

WORKDIR subdirectory

// USE

WORKDIR /app/backend/subdirectory

How Attacks Happen on Docker Containers

Ensuring the security of containerized applications is paramount in today’s software development landscape. Here are some attacks that can occur due to container vulnerabilities:

  • Container breakouts: Exploiting vulnerabilities to escape container isolation and gain unauthorized access to the underlying host system.
  • Privilege escalation: Leveraging vulnerabilities to elevate privileges within a container, allowing unauthorized access and control.
  • Container image poisoning: Tampering with container images to inject malicious code, backdoors, or malware, compromising the security and integrity of the containerized application.
  • Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks: Exploiting vulnerabilities to overwhelm container resources or the host system, leading to service disruptions and making the containerized application unavailable.
  • Supply chain attacks: Exploiting vulnerabilities in container dependencies or distribution processes to introduce malicious code or compromise the software supply chain.

Detect and Prevent Docker Container Vulnerabilities With Spectral

Dockerfile WORKDIR plays a crucial role in creating clean and isolated environments for different application components, promoting reproducibility and consistency across various environments.

To mitigate these risks, it is crucial to implement Docker security best practices for container development, deployment, and runtime environments, including adopting a Secure Software Development Lifecycle (SSDLC). By following an SSDLC approach, organizations can integrate security considerations throughout the entire software development process, from design to deployment and maintenance.

Container scanning tools like Spectral offer robust solutions to enhance container security and mitigate vulnerabilities. Spectral uses advanced detection mechanisms to analyze containers for potential vulnerabilities, data leaks, and code integrity issues. With hundreds of detectors, Spectral helps safeguard your code, assets, and infrastructure, enabling you to proactively protect your containerized applications and ensure their security throughout the software development lifecycle.

Request a free demo today.

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